Conditions that you cannot see, such as those impacting the way you think, move and process information, can sometimes be the most difficult to understand and diagnose. That is where the experts with the neuropsychology program at the Kentucky Neuroscience Institute can help.

Our neurocognitive diagnostic service team is trained to perform a spectrum of neurocognitive/neuropsychological evaluations to help diagnose cognitive deficits. These deficits may result from an array of causes, including neurodegenerative disorders, such as dementia, as well as cancer, epilepsy and head injury.

The neuropsychologists with our program also serve as attending faculty in neurology, leading programs such as epilepsy, headache and pain, memory and aging, movement disorders, multidisciplinary concussion, and stroke.

Neuropsychology Specialties

Clinicians with the neuropsychology program have a wealth of experience with conditions such as:

Specifically, our team may perform a variety of tests to determine your state of health and the appropriate treatment plan for you. These tests may include cognitive and behavioral assessments, memory assessments, cognitive testing before and after deep brain stimulation, evaluation of cognitive health after a stroke, and health assessments after injuries sustained during falls, motor vehicle accidents or sports. Our clinicians also offer cognitive testing for individuals undergoing cancer treatment.

Neurocognitive testing involves paper and pencil tasks and may also include tests taken on a computer. The goal of these evaluations is to determine the relationship between your brain and behavior, mood and thoughts. You may be referred for this type of testing to diagnose conditions that may affect the brain or to monitor progress if you are undergoing rehabilitation or treatment to manage a brain condition.

If you are experiencing challenges such as confusion, memory loss, slower thinking or trouble concentrating, neurocognitive testing may help your healthcare provider get a clear picture of why these things may be happening.

Why Choose UK HealthCare for Neuropsychology?

U.S. News & World Report ranked Kentucky Neuroscience Institute 44th in the country for Neurology and Neurosurgery in 2017. Additionally, the Stroke Center at Kentucky Neuroscience Institute earned a Comprehensive Stroke Center designation from The Joint Commission in 2014 and was recertified in 2018. Kentucky Neuroscience Institute is also a level 4 epilepsy center, according to the National Association of Epilepsy Centers, underscoring the excellence of our facilities and expertise of our providers.

Neurocognitive Testing

Neurocognitive testing, also known as neuropsychological testing, is a comprehensive evaluation of the patient's cognitive status by specific neurologic domains, i.e., memory, attention, problem solving, language, visuospatial, processing speed motor, and emotion. Testing is mainly comprised of paper and pencil tasks and/or computerized tasks, done in a one-on-one setting. It is physically non-invasive.

Assessing brain function

As the brain controls specific neurologic domains, cognitive skills are often affected by many different types of brain-related health conditions. Accordingly, it is important for physicians and other health care providers to carefully assess the patient's relationship among brain, thought, behavior and mood. Neurocognitive/neuropsychological testing helps to clarify this picture, especially in the context of one's daily living or development.

When is referral from your doctor appropriate?

Referrals are typically made to diagnose or rule out diseases of the brain. This information also helps to describe the identified condition's impact on the patient's daily functioning.  Examples include traumatic brain injury, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, brain tumor, stroke, Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. The information gathered during this assessment will go to your doctor, and he or she will use this information to make decisions regarding your health care.

Some conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis, cause patients to experience memory and thinking difficulties over time. If these types of conditions are diagnosed or suspected, a baseline evaluation with follow-up (usually yearly) may be useful in interpreting possible changes in one's disease condition.

Neurocognitive or neuropsychological testing is also beneficial in tracking progress for patients undergoing rehabilitation and/or to evaluate how effective a certain treatment is for them.  Neurocognitive or neuropsychological testing can help in planning educational and vocational programs as well. They can also assist in disability determination or for forensic (medical-legal) uses.

When should I think about having a neurocognitive evaluation?

Difficulties that might indicate the need for an evaluation include:

  • Memory loss
  • Difficulty communicating (getting the right words out and/or understanding others)
  • Attention and concentration problems
  • Difficulty planning and organizing
  • Changes in spatial skills or visual perception
  • Difficulty reading or writing
  • Disturbed thinking or confusion
  • Increased impulsivity 
  • Slowed thinking speed

Talk to your doctor if you have any symptoms mentioned above.

Testing process

During your visit, you will meet with the neuropsychologist. The doctor will ask about your medical history and the specific concerns that brought you to this clinic. The doctor will often spend additional time talking to your spouse, parent, child or other family members who accompany you. You will spend the majority of your appointment working with a psychometrist, who will do the testing with you.

You may be asked to answer questions, read, write or draw. You may also complete measures that will help the doctor understand how your illness or injury affects your mood,  personality or coping skills. During the tests, your family members or friends will be asked to wait in the lobby area.

Unlike the tests you have taken in school, neurocognitive tests do not give you a “pass” or “fail” grade.  We will simply ask that you do your best on all of the tests that are presented to you. This will allow us to gather accurate results that best represent how you function in your daily life. Information gathered from these tests helps your doctor know your individual strengths and weaknesses, and provide recommendations for your future care.


Once testing is complete, the neuropsychologist will examine the results. If there has been previous testing, those scores will be compared to the new results. The neuropsychologist will generate a report interpreting the findings and provide conclusions. As authorized by the patient, the report will be sent to the doctor who referred you within one to three weeks for full evaluation or quicker for a test specific to a certain disease. Feedback details for the patient may be arranged prior to leaving the appointment for the assessment date.

If you have any questions, please call the UK Neurocognitive Diagnostic Service at 859-323-5661. 

Preparing for a Neurocognitive Test

Your appointment can last from two to five hours, depending on the questions asked by your doctor and the nature of the tests required as determined by the neuropsychologist. To be prepared for a visit of this length:

  • Dress in comfortable clothes and get a good night's rest before your appointment.
  • Take any medicine as you normally do each day.
  • Bring any necessary medicines with you, so you will be able to take them at the normal times.
  • Bring glasses for reading and hearing aids if you normally wear them.
  • Meals and snacks are available in our deli and cafeteria, but feel free to bring these with you if you feel you might get hungry during the day.
  • Be sure to eat any meals before your scheduled appointment.
  • If you have a family member or friend who is familiar with your condition or current problems, please bring them with you. They may be able to provide valuable information while you meet with the doctor to discuss your condition or current problems.
  • For minors, a parent or legal guardian must accompany the minor for the appointment.

During the testing, your family member or friends will be asked to leave the exam room. This is so that you will not be distracted during testing. Your full concentration is very important to your performance.

To ensure as many people as possible are allowed appointments, it is very important that patients inform the clinic if they are unable to keep their scheduled appointment. It is also very important to check with your insurance carrier about coverage. Contact your insurance provider and ask if your policy covers neurocognitive/neuropsychological testing. If the insurance company requires a referral, you will need to contact the referring doctor and have him or her send this form to your insurance company.

About Neuropsychologists & Psychometrists

A clinical neuropsychologist is a professional psychologist trained in the science of brain-behavior relationships. The clinical neuropsychologist specializes in the application of assessment and intervention principles based on the scientific study of human behavior across the lifespan as it relates to normal and abnormal functioning of the central nervous system. (Source: The Houston Conference on Specialty Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology)

A psychometrist is trained in administering and scoring tests and instruments that examine thinking abilities. UK psychometrists hold a master's degree and are licensed by the commonwealth of Kentucky. They work under the supervision of the neuropsychologist. It is the responsibility of the psychometrist to guide the patient through the examination. In order to ensure accurate results, the psychometrist will encourage the patient to do his or her best on all tests. Be assured that the psychometrist will do his or her best to provide for your comfort while you are at the Kentucky Neuroscience Institute.

Information for Providers Making Referrals

The referring doctor can fax, mail, or use the online referral form for a consultation request. A referral/consultation request should include:

  • Patient background and history in the context of neurological concern(s), and contact information ◦Specific concerns related to your patient's neurological health and cognitive ability
  • Any specific questions regarding your patient's neurocognition
  • Any questions pertaining to guardianship of the patient if necessary
  • Any questions pertaining to capacity/competency of the patient if necessary

Please note that pre-certification for insurance must be obtained by the referring provider.

If the patient and/or doctor are outside the UK HealthCare system or the patient is being referred from UK Psychiatry, please send reports and records relevant to the patient's health as available. Our team will triage referrals once all the information is received. The patient or patient's guardian will be contacted within one week to schedule an appointment. No special forms need to be filled out. Depending on referral issues, a half-day is reserved for each patient, so the number of appointments is limited.